Prof. Dr. Machiel Kiel

Style of Art : Academic / art historian
Branch of Art : Ottoman history, Ottoman Architecuture in Balkan, Architectural history
Art Profile :

Machiel Kiel was born in Wormerveer village in 1938. Between 1944 and 1952 he finished his primary school in Wormerveer as well. After working at several businesses in 1952-1958, he traveled to Balkans in 1959. In 1958-76 he worked on several architectural restoration works. In 1969-1990 he researched Ottoman architecture in Balkans. He became a member of the International committee of Dutch Byzantine Studies in 1972. In 1979-1999 he researched on Ottoman archives in Istanbul, Ankara and Sofia. In 1983 he completed his doctoral degree with his Ph. D. dissertation "Ecclesiastical Architecture and Mural Painting of Bulgaria in the Ottoman Period" at Amsterdam University. Dr. Kiel received the title of honorary doctorate from Ege University in 1992. In 1993 he became a tenured professor in Utrecht University. Prof. Kiel has participated in many international conferences and symposiums to present papers. He has published over 190 articles and 11 books on Ottoman architecture in Balkan.He taught at many universities as a guest professor. After his retirement, Dr. Kiel became the director of Netherlands Archaeology Institution in Istanbul.

Selected his articles and studies:
"Notes on the history of some Turkish monuments in Thessaloniki", in: Balkan Studies, 11, 2, (Thessaloniki 1970), p. 122 - 156.
"Bulgaristan′da eski Osmanlı mimarisinin bir yapıtı: Kıdemli Baba Sultan Bektaşi Tekkesi", (also in English version), in Belleten XXXV, sayı 137, (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu 1971), p. 45 - 60. 
 "Observations on the history of Northern Greece during the Turkish rule historical and architectural description of the Turkish monuments of Komotini and Serres, their place in the development of Ottoman architecture, and their  present condition," in: Balkan Studies 12,2, (Thessaloniki 1971), p. 415 - 462.
"Armenian and Ottoman influences on a group of village churches in the Kumanovo district," in: Zbornik za Likovne Umetnosti. (Novi Sad 1971), p. 247 - 255.
"Yenice-i Vardar (Vardar Yenicesi - Giannitsa). A forgotten Turkish cultural centre in Macedonia of the l5th and l6th century," in: Studia Byzantina et Neohellenica Neerlandica III, (Leiden 1971), p. 300 - 355.
"A contribution to the history of art of the Armenian diaspora. Armenian and Ottoman influences in North-Eastern Macedonia," in: Revue des Etudes Arméniennes, N.S. VIII, (Paris 1971), p. 267 - 282.
"Notes on the medieval architecture of the Danubian Lowlands and their historical background. Gothic architecture in Syrmia and Ba?ka," in: Revue des Etudes Sud-Est Europêennes X, 2, (Bucarest 1972), p. 191 - 218.
"A note on the frontiers of the Byzantine empire in the l5th century. Ottoman epigraphic material on the third Turkish conquest of Vizye-Vize, in Thrace," in: Byzantinische Zeitschrift 66, 2, (München 1973), p. 351 - 354.
"A note on the exact date of construction of the White Tower of Thessaloniki," in: Balkan Studies 14, 2. (Thessaloniki 1973), p. 352 - 359.
"Some Early Ottoman monuments in Bulgarian Thrace, Stara Zagora, Jambol and Nova Zagora," in: Belleten, XXXVIII, sayı 152, (Ankara: T.T.K. 1974), p. 635 - 656.
"The Church of Our Lady of Dolna Kamenica in Eastern Serbia, some remarks on the identity of its founder and the origin of its architecture," in: Actes du XIVe Congrès Intern. des Etudes Byzantines. (Bucarest 1975), Bd. II, p. 159 - 166.
"The Ottoman Hamam in the Balkans," in: Art and Archaeology Research Papers. (London 1976), No 9. p. 87-97.
"Ottoman architecture in the Macedonia province: Štip, Kumanovo, Prilep and Strumitsa," in: Güney-Doğu  Avrupa Arastırmları Dergisi IV-V, (Istanbul 1976/77), p. 153-196.
"Güney Romanya′da Sarı Saltık′n çalışmaları ve Doğu Bulgaristan′da erken Bektaşilik merkezi üzere tarihsel önem tasıyan notlar," in: Hacı Bektaş Veli Bildiriler, Denemeler, Açıkoturum. Hacı Bektaş Yayınları No 1, (Ankara 1977), p. 13-29. Appeared also in: Çevren, Pristina, Eylül 1979, yıl VI, p. 27-36).
"Provincial and local trends in the art of the Ottoman Balkans," in: Islam in the Balkans. Papers arising from a symposium held to celebrate the World of Islam Festival at the Royal Scottish Museum. (Edinburgh, 1976 (1979)), p. 18-29.
"Reflections on the Ottoman architecture in Albania," in: Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Turkish Arts. (Budapest, 1975 (1979)), p.541-549.
"The Türbe of Sarı Saltık in Babadag - Rumanian Dobrudja - some remarks on its historical importance and present condition," in: Güney-Doğu Avrupa Araştırmaları Dergisi VI, (Istanbul 1978), p. 205-225.
"Gümülcine′de Türk Anıtlarının İncelemesi, Osmanlı Mimarisinin Gelişmesinde Yeri ve şimdiki Durumu," in: Türk Dünyası Arastırmaları Dergisi I, (Istanbul 1979), p. 140-155.
"The Vakıfname of Rakkas Sinan Beg in Karnobat (Karinabad) and the Ottoman colonization of Bulgarian Thrace," in: Journal of Ottoman Studies I, (Istanbul 1980), p. 15-32.
"Bulgaristan′dakı Osmanli-Türk Mimari Anıtlarının restorasyonundakı sorunlu ve beklentiler," in: Milliyet Sanat Dergisi 8, (Istanbul, Eylül 1980), p. 56-60.
"The date of construction of the Library of Osman Pasvantoğlu in Vidin. A Note on the chronogram of the Ottoman inscription of the library and the identity of its poet," in: Etudes Balkaniques 16, (Sofia 1980), p. 116-119.
(written together with Dr. Nimetullah Hafiz, Pristina), "An unknown Ottoman Monument of the l6th century in the Kosovo-Metohije district: the mosque of Kel Hasan Ağa in the village of Rogova and the inscription of the poet Valihi of Skopje," in: Prilozi za Orientalnu Filologiju 28/29, (Sarajevo 1981), p. 411-422.
"Two little-known monuments of Early and Classical Ottoman Architecture in Greek Thrace, Historical and arthistorical notes on the hamams of Timurtaş Pasazade Oruç Pasha (1398) and Feridun Ahmed Beg (1571) in Didymoteichon," in: Balkan Studies 22,2, (Thessaloniki 1981), p. 127-146.
"The oldest monuments of Ottoman-Turkish architecture in the Balkans, the Imaret and Mosque of ghazi Evrenos in Gümülcine/Komotini, and the Khan of Evrenos Bey in Ilica/Loutra in Greek Thrace, 1370-1390,", in: Sanat Tarihi Yillığı - Kunsthistorische Forschungen XII, (Istanbul 1983), p. 117-144.
"Population growth and food production of l6th century Athens and Attica according to the Ottoman Tahrir Defters," in: Proceedings of the Vlth Cambridge CIEPO Symposium. (Istanbul-Paris-Leiden 1987), p. 115-133.
"A Dutch traveller through Serbia and Bulgaria in 1699," in: Izvestija na Narodnata Biblioteka "Kiril i Metodij. Bd. XVI, (Sofia 1981 (1984)), p. 637-648.
(Written together with Prof Dr. Dimitris N. Karidis, University of Athens), "Santsaki tou Euripou l5os - l6os ai. Synthikes kai charakteristika tis anaptisiakis diadikasias ton poleos kai ton chorion," in: Tetramina 28/29, (Amphissa 1985), p. 1859-1903.
"The Turkish Aqueduct of Chalkis. A note on the date of construction and the identity of its founder, in: S.C. Bakhuizen, Studies in the Topography of Chalkis on Euboea. (Leiden 1985), p. 151-164.
"Islamic Architecture in the Balkans," in: ARTS. The Islamic World, Special  Issue on Islamic Heritage 4, No 3, (London 1987), p. 14-24.
"Reflections on the supposed Armeno-Serbian cultural relations in the Middle Ages," in: Etudes Arméniennes in Memoriam Haig Berberian. Dickran Kouymjian edit., (Lissabon 1986 (1987)), p. 375-395.
(together with Dr. John Verbeek), "Kornwerderzand 1930 bis 1988. Von der Bunkerstellung im Meer zum Museum für neuzeitliche Befestigungskunst," in: Festung im Spiegel der Quellen. Schriftenreihe Festungsforschung Band 7, herausgegeben von Dr. Volker Schmidtchen, (Wesel 1988), p. 151-174.
"The physical aspects of the city: Evliya Çelebi′s review of Diyarbekir′s architecture," in: Martin van Bruinessen, Hendrik Boeschoeten, (eds.) Evliya Çelebi in Diyarbekir. (Leiden-New York 1988), p. 53-63.
"Demographic changes in Danubian Bulgaria, 1480 - 1710, according to Ottoman-Turkish sources from the Turkish State Archives," in: Dokladi Vtorata meådunaroden kongres po Bâlgaristika. (Sofia 1986 (1989)), p. 49-75.
"Das Osmanische Reich bis 1453 (The Ottoman Empire until 1453)," - Karte B, IX 3, Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (TAVO), Wiesbaden 1989.
"Das osmanische Reich 1453 - 1512" - Karte B, IX 4, Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (TAVO), Wiesbaden 1989.
"Das osmanische Reich 1512 - 1574" - Karte B, IX 5, Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (TAVO), Wiesbaden 1989.
"Urban development in Bulgaria in the Turkish Period," in: K.H. Karpat, (ed.),  The Turks of Bulgaria: The History, Curlture and Political Fate of a Minority. (Istanbul 1990), p.79-158.
"Post-Byzantine architecture and painting in Central Greece 1460-1570. Its demographic and economic basis according to the Ottoman census- and taxation registers for Central Greece preserved in Istanbul and Ankara," in: From Mantzikert to Lepanto, The Byzantine World and the Turks 1071-1571. Ninth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies. Birmingham 1985,  (Byzantinische Forschungen, vol, XVI), (Amsterdam 1991), p. 429-446.
"Remarks on the administration of the poll tax (Cizye) in the Ottoman Balkans," Second International Seminar for Ottoman Paleography. Sofia, Sept.-Okt. 1988, in: Etudes Balkaniques No 4, (Sofia 1990). p.70-104.
"Remarks on some Ottoman-Turkish aqueducts and water supply systems in the Balkans - Kavalla, Chalkis, Aleksinac, Levkas and Ferai (Ferecik)," in: De Turcicis Aliisque Rebus, Commentarii Henry Hofman dedicati, Utrecht Turcological series Vol 3, (M.van Damme edit.), (Utrecht 1992), p. 105-139.
"H′razgrad - Hezargrad - Razgrad, The vicissitudes of a Turkish town in Bulgaria (Historical, Demographical Economic and Art Historical Notes)," in: Turcica XXI-XXIII (1991) (Mêlanges offerts â Irêne Mêlikoff)  p.495-563.
"Central Greece in the Süleymanic Age, Preliminary notes on population growth, economic expansion and influence on the spread of Greek Christian culture," Actes du Colloque de Paris, Ecole du Louvre, "Soliman le Magnifique et son temps" Gilles Veinstein (ed..), (Paris 1992), p.399-424.
"Anatolia Transplanted? Patterns of Demographic, Religious and Ethnic Change in the District of Tozluk (N.E. Bulgaria, 1479-1873", in: Anatolica 17, (Leiden-Leuven 1991), p. 1-29.
(Together with Hedda Reindl-Kiel), "Kaugummi für den Sultan. Ein Beitrag zur Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Insel Chios im 17. Jahrhundert," in: Osmanlı Araştırmaları XI, (Istanbul 1991), p. 181-214.
"Mevlana Neşri and the towns of medieval bulgaria, historical and topographical notes", in: C.Heywood-C. Imber (eds.), Studies in Ottoman History in Honour of Professor V.L. Menage. (Istanbul: Isis Press, 1994), p.165-187.
"Tatar Pazarcık, A Turkish Town in the Heart of Bulgaria, some brief remarks on its demographic development 1485-1874," in: X.Türk Tarih Kongresi, (Ankara 22-26 Eylül 1986), (Ankara: TTK, 1994), cild V, p. 2567-2581.
"The Külliye of Amca-zâde Hüseyin Pasha in Lepanto. A little-known work of Late-Classical Ottoman architecture in Central Greece." in: Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Turkish Art, 23-27 September 1991. (Ankara 1995), vol II, p. 379-387.
"A note on the date of establishment of the Bektashi Order in Albania. The Cult of Sarı Saltık Dede in Kruja mentioned in 1567/68", in: Alexandre Popovic et Gilles Veinstein (ed.),  Bektachiyya. etudes sur l′ordre mystique des Bektachis et les groupes relevant de Hadji Bektach. (Istanbul 1995), p. 269-276.
Little-known Ottoman Gravestones from some Provincial Centres in the Balkans (Egriboz/Chalkis, Niğbolu/Nikopol, Rusçuk/Russe), in: Jean-Louis Bacqué-Grammont et Aksel Tibet (eds.) Cimetiêres et Traditions Funêraires dans le Monde Islamique, (Ankara: TTK 1996), I, p. 319-332.
"Ottoman Architecture of the Balkans, Introductory Remarks on its spread and Development and the Problems of Conservation in our Times," in: Arab Revue for Ottoman Studies, 13/14, (Zaghouan 1996), p. 95-104.
"Early Ottoman Monuments in the Balkans which urgently need Conservation and Restoration", in: A. Temimi (ed.) Corpus d′Archeologie Ottomane, (Zaghouan 1997), p.69-82.
"The rise and decline of Ottoman Boeotia, l5th - l9th centuries (Remarks on the Settlement pattern, Demography and Agricultural production according to unpublished Ottoman Turkish census- and taxation records)," in: John Bintliff (Ed.) Recent Development in the History and Archaeology of Central Greece, Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Boeotian Studies, Bradford U.K. 1990. (Oxford 1997) ( BAR International Series 666), p.315 - 358.
"Ottoman Building Activity along the Via Egnatia, the Cases of Pazargah, Kavalla and Ferecik," in: Elisabeth Zachariadou (ed.) The Via Egnatia under Ottoman Rule 1380-1699, (Rethymnon 1996), p.145-158.
 "TATAR PAZARCIK. The Development of an Ottoman Town in Central-Bulgaria or the Story of how the Bulgarians conquered Upper Thrace without firing a shot," in: Klaus Kreiser, Christoph Neumann (eds) Das osmanische Reich und seinen Archivalien und Chroniken, Nejat Göyünc zu Ehren. (Istanbul 1997), p. 31-67.
"Magnesia on the Maeander. From Hellenistic polis to Byzantine castle and to Emirate and Ottoman Marketplace." Proceeding to the Second Intern. Congress of Ottoman Archeology, (Zaghouan, 9-12 Sept. 1997(1998)), 14 p.
"Ottoman Architectural Monuments in the Balkans: Losses and Gains," in: François Déroche a.o. (eds.) Turkish Art, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Turkish Art, (Genève 1999), p. 27-38.
“The Ottoman Imperial Registers: Central Greece and Northern Bulgaria in the 15th – 19th century: the Demographic Development of two Areas compared,” in: J. Bintliff – K. Sbonias (eds.) Reconstructing the past, Population Trends in Mediterranean Europe, (3000 B.C. – A.D. 1800), (Oxford 1999), p. 195-218.
"The Icon and the Mosque, Orthodox Christian icon paintings as a method to retrieved the lost Ottoman architectural heritage of the Southern Balkans," in: Aptullah Kuran Armağanı, Lucienne Theis-Şenocak (ed.), (Istanbul 2000), p. 230-245.
"The Tekke of Kıdemli Baba near Nova Zagora - Bulgaria. A contribution to its history and date of construction." in: Actes des IIIème Congrès International de l′Archeologie Ottomane, (Zaghouan 2000), p.39-46. 
"SARI SALTUK: Pionier des Islams auf dem Balkan, im 13. Jahrhundert, mit Materialien von Berndt Radtke," in: Erhard Franz - Ismail Ergin (eds.) Aleviler/Alewiten. Identität und Geschichte, Deutsches Orient Institut Hamburg, Mitteilungen, Band 59, (Hamburg 2000), p. 253-286.
"The Caravansaray and Civic Centre of Defterdar Murad Çelebi in Ma’arrat an- Nu’man and the Kü¨lliye of Yemen Fatihi Sinan Pasha in Sasa. Two little known 16th-Century Ottoman Külliyes in  Syria and their relation to Ottoman and Local Building Traditions." in:  Nur Akın, Afife Batur, Selçuk Batur (eds.) Seven Centuries of Ottoman Architecture, A Supra-National Heritage, (Istanbul 1999 (2001)), p. 103-110.

"The Village of Goriani (Gavriani, Gaveryani, Agoryani etc.) on the Othrys in the former Kaza of İzdin (Lamia) according to the Ottoman Census- and Taxation Records of the 15th - 17th century," in: Pharos, Journal of the Netherlands Institute at Athens, VII, 1999, p. 111-122.
"The Development of Christian Art and Architecture in the Balkan provinces in the Ottoman Period. A contribution to the study of Religious Tolerance in the Ottoman Empire", in: Engin Akarlı, İlber Ortaylı (eds) Osmanlı Devlet′ınde Din ve Vicdan Hürriyeti, (Istanbul 2000), p. 267-274 and 393-404. 
The Quartrefoil Plan in Ottoman Architecture Reconsidered in the Light of the "Fethiye Mosque" of Athens" in: Muqarnas 19, (2002), p. 109-122.
Vâlihî -i Üskübî, Some notes on a 16th Century Ottoman Poet from the Balkans and the Background of his Life and Work," in: Journal of Turkish Studies, vol 26, Band 2, (Cambridge MA, 2002), p. 31 - 41.
"Die Rolle des Kadis und der Ulema als Förderer der Baukunst in den Provinzzentren des Osmanischen Reiches." in: Sabine Prätor und Christoph Neumann (eds.) Festschrift Hans Georg Majer, (Istanbul 2002), p.569-601.
"About Ottoman culture and modern electronics" in: Ilona Beumer-Grill 9ed. Newsletter of the Reseach School of Asian, African and Amerindian Studies (CNWS), (Leiden 2002), p. 32-36.
"Islamic Influence on Christian Art: Ottoman Architecture and the Serbian-Orthodox Monasteries of Northern Bosnia," in: A. Temimi (ed.)Actes du Ve Congrés International d′archéologie Ottomane, (Zaghouan 2003), p. 87-93.
"Magnesia on the Maeander as Byzantine Fortress and Turkish Marketplace, Remarks on the Mosque of Aydınoğlu Mehmed Şah b. Musa Bey", in: Rahmi Ünal - Inci Kuyulu - Zeynep Mercangöz (eds.) Uluslararası Sanat Tarihi Semposyumu Prof. Dr. Gönül Öney′e Armağan, (Izmir 2003), p. 375-378 and plate XCIII.
"Episimes Tourkikes Piges gia ti Monastiriaki Zoi kai ta Monastiria tis Anatolikis Thessalias kata ton 16o Aiona," in: Byzantinos Domos, Periodiko Mesaionikis Ellinikis Istorias kai Politismou, 13, (Athen 2003), p. 69-100; (Turkish Administrative sources on the Monastic Life and Monasteries of Eastern Thessalyy in the 16th century and its Socio-Economic Background).
"Population and Production according to Ottoman Tax Records,: in: S.E.J. Gerstel - M. Mumm et. al. "A Late Medieval Settlement at Panakton," in: Hesperia, The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 72, (April-June 2003), p. 229-234.
"Anatolian-Balkanic Connections. The Central Greek district of Vitrinitsa (Tolophon) and North Anatolian town of Amasya in the 15th 17th centuries according to unknown and rarely-used OttomanTurkish sources", in: Anatolia 30, (Leiden 2004), p. 219 – 237.
"Ottoman Sources for the Demographic History and the Process of Islamization of Bosnia-Hercegovina in the 15th-17th Centuries, Old sources - New Methodology," in: Markus Koller - Kemal Karpat (eds.) Ottoman Bosnia, A History in Peril, (Madison-Wisconsin 2004), p. 93-119.
"The Heart of Bulgaria, Population and Settlement History of the Districts of Provadija, Novi Pazar and Shoumen from the late-Middle Ages till the end og the Ottoman Period," in: Osmanlı ve Cumhuriyet Dönemi Türk-Bulgar İlişkileri, Uluslararası Semposyum, 11-13 Mayis 2005, Eskişehir, (Eskişehir: Osman Gazi Üniversitesi 2005), p. 15-38.
"The Construction of the Ottoman Castle of Anavarin-i Cedid according to the orders of the Imperial Council as Preserved in the Mühimme Defters 19 - 31: from 2 Safer A.H. 980 to Receb A.H. 985 (June 1572 - November 1577)," in: Fariba Zarinebaf, John Bennet, Jack L. Davis (eds) A Historical and Economic Geography of Ottoman Greece, The Sourthwestern Morea in the 18th century, Hesperia Supplement 34, (Athens: American School of Classical Studies 2005), p. 265 - 281.
"Ljubinje (Hercegovina), From Shepherd′s encampment to Muslim Town" in: J.J. Emerick – D.M. Deliyannis (eds.) Archaeology in Architecture: Studies in Honour of Cecil Lee Striker, Philipp Von Zabern Verlag, (Mainz am Rhein 2005), p.99-105.
Ottoman Urban Development and the cult of a Heterodox Sufi Saint: Sarı Saltuk Dede and towns of İsakçe and Babadag in the Northern Dobrudja.” in: G. Veinstein (ed.) Syncretisme et hérésies dan l’Orient seldjoukide et ottoman (XIV – XVIIIe siècle), (Paris, October 2005), p. 283-298.
"Bektashi Tekke of Durbali Sultan in Central Greece", in Yaşar Ocak (ed.) Sufism and Sufis in Ottoman Society, sources-doctrines-rituals-turuq-architecture, literature and fine arts, (Ankara 2005), p.421-442.
"The Building Accounts of the Castle of Vlorë/Avlonya, (S. Albania) 1537-1539", in: Ali Çaksu (ed.) Proceedings of the Second International Congress on the Ottoman Culture in the Balkans, Tirana, December 2003, (Istanbul 2006), p. 3 – 31.
“Have ethnic and religious animosities caused the destruction of the artistic and cultural heritage of Kosovo during the Ottoman period?” in: Anna Di Lellio, Kosovo, Passage to Independence, (London-New York 2006), p.43 – 52.
"Cross-Cultural Contacts in Anatolia, Gothic Influences on the architecture of the Beyliks of Southwestern Anatolia in the 14th century (Antalya, Bergama, Istanoz/Korkuteli, Niğde and Peçin).” In: Sanat Tarihi Defterleri 10, (Istanbul 2006), p. 67 - 89.

Foundation : Netherlands Institute in Turkey
Email :
Country : Turkey / Holland
Preferred Lang. : Turkish / English / Dutch
Images :